橡木桶和不锈钢桶酿造有什么区别?

发布于:2023-11-24 15:27:46  来源:http://www.qfrtrq.com

橡木桶在不锈钢桶还未出现前,几乎所有葡萄酒都在橡木桶中陈年与储存,其作为储酒容器的历史十分悠久。种类、桶型和烘烤程度是区分不同橡木桶的基本要素,不同要素也关乎到橡木桶对葡萄酒的影响。橡木桶所选取的常用、流行的橡木树种主要为欧洲地区的卢浮橡、夏橡以及美洲白栎。橡木桶大好处是能为葡萄酒提供独有的橡木桶风味,如橡木、咖啡、烟草、香草和巧克力等。
Before the emergence of stainless steel barrels, almost all wines were aged and stored in oak barrels, and their history as wine storage containers is very long. The type, barrel type, and degree of baking are the basic elements that distinguish different oak barrels, and different elements also affect the impact of oak barrels on wine. The commonly used and popular oak tree species selected for oak barrels are mainly Louvre oak, summer oak, and American white oak from Europe. The great advantage of oak barrels is that they can provide unique oak barrel flavors for wine, such as oak, coffee, tobacco, vanilla, and chocolate.
橡木桶带来的这些风味与葡萄原有的果香、陈年香气等相互交织融合,为大多葡萄酒爱好者所青睐。尽管如今有不少葡萄酒厂在酿酒时选择的是不锈钢桶,但为迎合消费者口味,一些酒厂会在不锈钢桶发酵的葡萄酒中加入橡木条、橡木块甚橡木粉,以期使葡萄酒中保有橡木桶风味。此外,因橡木桶是由一定数量的橡木桶板箍绑并烘烤制成,板块之间难免存有细小间隙,为葡萄酒进行适当“微氧化”提供了条件,有利葡萄酒自然熟成,在微氧化过程中葡萄酒的酚类物质与橡木桶香气发生反应,终成酒的香气也更馥郁。
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The flavors brought by oak barrels are intertwined and integrated with the original fruity and aged aromas of grapes, which are favored by most wine enthusiasts. Although many wineries nowadays choose stainless steel barrels when making wine, in order to cater to consumer tastes, some wineries will add oak bars, oak blocks, or even oak powder to the wine fermented in stainless steel barrels, in order to maintain the oak barrel flavor in the wine. In addition, because oak barrels are made by binding and baking a certain number of oak barrel boards, there are inevitably small gaps between the boards, providing conditions for appropriate "micro oxidation" of wine, which is beneficial for the natural maturation of wine. During the micro oxidation process, the phenolic substances of wine react with the aroma of the oak barrel, resulting in a more fragrant aroma of the final wine.
不锈钢桶是一种惰性容器,由不锈钢材质铸造而成,密封性好,有较强耐腐性。不锈钢桶的使用越来越流行主要归因其耐用性和可持续性。橡木桶的使用寿命很短,一般三到五年,随着使用次数增多,橡木桶会渐渐失去其原有的橡木香气,葡萄酒的酸性也会渐渐侵蚀橡木桶。相比不锈钢桶的使用寿命就长得多了。不锈钢桶的容积一般较大,在酿造相同容量葡萄酒的情况下,不锈钢桶比橡木桶更能节省购置成本,这也是部分酒厂选择不锈钢桶酿造葡萄酒的原因之一。同时相比橡木桶为葡萄酒带来橡木风味的特点,有的酿酒师认为,不锈钢桶中性无味,能很好保有酿酒葡萄原有的个性和特色风味,所酿造出来的葡萄酒更为纯粹自然。
Stainless steel bucket is an inert container made of stainless steel material cast, with good sealing and strong corrosion resistance. The increasing popularity of stainless steel barrels is mainly attributed to their durability and sustainability. The service life of oak barrels is very short, usually three to five years. As the number of uses increases, oak barrels will gradually lose their original oak aroma, and the acidity of wine will gradually erode the oak barrels. Compared to stainless steel barrels, the service life is much longer. Stainless steel barrels generally have a larger volume. When brewing wine of the same capacity, stainless steel barrels can save more purchase costs than oak barrels. This is also one of the reasons why some wineries choose stainless steel barrels for wine brewing. At the same time, compared to the oak flavor that oak barrels bring to wine, some winemakers believe that stainless steel barrels are neutral and odorless, which can well retain the original personality and unique flavor of wine grapes, and the wine produced is more pure and natural.
尽管橡木桶的细小间隙能为陈放其中的葡萄酒提供微氧化的环境,但其氧化的速度相对不可控,这对酿酒师来说是一大挑战。拥有良好密封性的不锈钢桶则不同,其不透气性使酿酒师能把握葡萄酒的氧化速度,根据葡萄酒的试饮口感进行适度氧化,可较精确监控葡萄酒的品质。再者不锈钢桶光滑的触面便于清洗,能减少前一次酿酒残余物质的影响,这也是不锈钢桶可持续使用的原因之一。
Although the small gaps in oak barrels can provide a slightly oxidizing environment for the aged wine, the rate of oxidation is relatively uncontrollable, which is a major challenge for winemakers. A stainless steel barrel with good sealing is different. Its non breathability allows winemakers to grasp the oxidation rate of wine and conduct moderate oxidation based on the taste of the wine, which can accurately monitor the quality of the wine. Furthermore, the smooth contact surface of the stainless steel barrel is easy to clean, which can reduce the impact of residual substances from the previous brewing process, which is also one of the reasons for the sustainable use of stainless steel barrels.
值得一提的是,对于橡木桶和不锈钢桶二者的比较,并无好坏、优劣之争,也无对错、正统与野派之别,在酿造葡萄酒的工艺上选择橡木桶或不锈钢桶,亦或是文中未提及的混凝土发酵罐等容器,均是酒庄出于对葡萄酒预期品质的考量之选。其实不管是用什么材料,造出来的葡萄酒都有独特的风味
It is worth mentioning that there is no good or bad, good or bad, or right or wrong, orthodox or wild style comparison between oak barrels and stainless steel barrels. Choosing oak barrels or stainless steel barrels, or containers such as concrete fermentation tanks that are not mentioned in the article, in the process of wine making, are all choices made by the winery based on the expected quality of the wine. Actually, no matter what materials are used, the wine produced has a unique flavor
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