橡木桶的制作非常讲究是为什么?

发布于:2020-09-25 20:10:54  来源:http://www.qfrtrq.com

橡木桶的制造也很有讲究。首先是制桶用的木材,必须是树龄在百年以上的橡木。世界上有很多地方出产橡木,其中包括我国的内蒙古和东北三省,但酿酒专家们一致公认,当以法国干邑地区东面约150公里的林茂山上出产的橡木品质,用来贮存白兰地效果更好。美国白橡木排行第二,但与法国橡木的质量相距颇远。不过,美国阿肯色州出产的白橡木,却很合适苏格兰威士忌的“栖身”。其次,当橡树砍下后,必须经过2年以上工夫的风干,然后才能加工制桶。
The manufacture of oak barrels is also very particular. First of all, the wood used for barrel making must be oak with a tree age of over 100 years. Oak is produced in many places in the world, including Inner Mongolia and three provinces in Northeast China. However, wine experts agree that the best quality of oak produced on Linmao mountain, about 150 km east of cognac, is the best for brandy storage. American white oak ranks second, but is far from the quality of French oak. However, the white oak produced in Arkansas is suitable for Scotch whisky. Secondly, when the oak tree is cut down, it must be dried for more than two years before it can be processed into barrels.
在制作时,橡木不可用锯锯开,必须用斧头劈开,以免损害木头的原有结构,劈好的木板要风干1年,任其日晒雨淋,才能祛除苦味。至于橡木桶的制作工艺,与我国的圆木工艺很相仿,用一条一条的橡木板嵌制,既不用胶水,也不许用铁钉。制作时,先把桶的一头制妥,用铁圈箍好,然后倒转过来,在桶的中间肚皮处用火烘烤,利用热胀冷缩的原理,使另一头也卷成桶形,木板间要拼得密不通风,外面再用铁圈箍紧。其工艺之精巧,真实令人惊叹。白兰地酒桶的容量以350公升为更理想,据说这样做酒液与木材的接触面积更为平均.这种橡木百灌桶母只价值达1000美元。威士忌酒桶的容量一般为200公升。
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In the production, the oak can not be sawn, but must be split with an axe, so as to avoid damaging the original structure of the wood. The split wood should be dried for one year and left to the sun and rain to remove the bitterness. As for the production process of oak barrel, it is very similar to that of round wood in China. It is inlaid with oak boards one by one, without glue or iron nails. When making, first make one end of the barrel, hoop it with iron hoop, and then turn it upside down, and bake it in the middle of the barrel with fire. Using the principle of heat expansion and cold contraction, the other end is also rolled into a barrel shape. The boards should be assembled tightly, and then hooped with iron hoops outside. The exquisite craftsmanship is really amazing. A brandy barrel with a capacity of 350 liters is ideal. It is said that the contact area between liquor and wood is the most average. This oak barrel is worth $1000. The capacity of a whisky barrel is generally 200 liters.
木材中的化学物质,大致可分为两类,一类叫做细胞壁物质,包括纤维素、半纤维素、木质素等;另一类为非细胞物质,一般可分为菇类、酚类、糖类、蛋白质类、生物碱类、油脂类以及植物蜡等成分。酒在桶中贮存时,空气会通过橡木细胞进入桶内而使酒吸收氧气,而酒又通过橡木桶向外排出蒸汽,这时酒液就会浸透入细胞壁中,以吸取木材中的成分而改善酒质。由于酒在贮存期中会以蒸汽形式挥发,造成每年损失酒液3^-5写,故而酒龄越长,酒的售价越贵。
The chemical substances in wood can be roughly divided into two categories: one is called cell wall material, including cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin; the other is non cellular material, which can be generally divided into mushroom, phenol, sugar, protein, alkaloid, oil and plant wax. When the wine is stored in the barrel, the air will enter the barrel through the oak cells to make the wine absorb oxygen, and the wine will emit steam through the oak barrel. At this time, the liquor will soak into the cell wall to absorb the components in the wood and improve the wine quality. Because the liquor will volatilize in the form of steam during the storage period, resulting in the loss of liquor liquor by 3 ^ - 5 per year. Therefore, the longer the liquor age is, the more expensive the wine price will be.
提起酒的陈化,就必然会联想到酒在酒桶中的窖藏。其实要提高葡萄酒的品质,除窖藏外,尚应注意其他因素。质量好的葡萄酒是会越陈越好的,但是质量差的葡萄酒却会走向反面,要知葡萄酒的质量不但与葡萄品种、产地、土壤、空气、水分等有关,而且还与酿造工艺和酿制技术关系密切。
When we mention the aging of wine, we will inevitably associate it with the cellar of wine in the barrel. In fact, in order to improve the quality of wine, we should pay attention to other factors besides hoarding. Wine with good quality will get older and better, but the wine with poor quality will go to the opposite side. We should know that the quality of wine is not only related to grape variety, origin, soil, air, water, but also closely related to brewing technology and brewing technology.
法国的波尔多红酒,当其发酵完毕后,新酒须经过半年的木桶期才能使酒质更趋完美,而且要用225公升容量橡木桶贮藏,而橡木则要采自加拿大的,还要搭配肯定比例的法国利莫辛(Limousin)橡木,可见一种好酒的陈化,也是由多种因素决定的。又如苏格兰威士忌的质量,不仅与酿造的技术和经验有关,而且与谷物、泥炭、水质、环境、蒸馏装备、贮酒木桶的材质、桶贮工夫以及酒库环境等都有肯定关系。
After the fermentation of French Bordeaux red wine, it takes half a year for the new wine to be more perfect. Moreover, it needs to be stored in 225 liter oak barrels, while the oak is from Canada and matched with certain proportion of French Limousin oak. It can be seen that the aging of a good wine is determined by many factors. For example, the quality of Scotch whisky is not only related to brewing technology and experience, but also positively related to grain, peat, water quality, environment, distillation equipment, barrel material, barrel storage time and liquor store environment.
众所周知:菊萄酒,包括静止葡萄酒或气泡郁萄酒,无论是桶装或瓶装,更好应贮藏在酒窖内,酒窖必须设于地下深处,温度保持在10-13'C之间.湿度变化也更好不大,通常维持在75%左右,湿度过高则瓶塞和标贴皆容纂霉烂,而空气过分干燥又会使软木塞萎缩而造成酒液滴漏。同时.酒窖贮酒处必须保持整齐,不得堆放易燃物或易挥发性的物质,以免破坏酒的品质.
As we all know, chrysanthemum wine, including still wine or bubble wine, should be stored in the wine cellar, whether in barrels or bottles. The wine cellar must be located deep underground, and the temperature should be kept between 10-13'c. the humidity should also be small, usually maintained at about 75%. If the humidity is too high, both the bottle stopper and label will be rotten. If the air is too dry, the cork will shrink The liquor drips. At the same time, the wine storage place in the wine cellar must be kept in order, and inflammable or volatile substances shall not be piled up to avoid damaging the quality of wine
橡木酒桶虽对某些酒的酒质提高有利.但也不是对所有酒的酒质都会有益。例如白葡萄酒,当人们欣赏其清爽、新鲜的风味时,那么就没有必要桶贮;对伏特加、金酒以及无色的樱桃白兰地等酒,因为它们从蒸馏器中蒸馏出来时酒质已基本定型,因此也没有必要再桶贮,此外,花色繁多的利乔酒类,也同徉不需要桶贮。
Although the oak barrel is beneficial to the improvement of the quality of some wines, it is not beneficial to the quality of all wines. For example, when people appreciate the fresh and fresh flavor of white wine, there is no need to store it in barrels; for vodka, gin and colorless cherry brandy, because their quality has been basically fixed when they are distilled out of the distiller, there is no need to store them in barrels. In addition, liquors with various colors do not need to be stored in barrels.

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